In established stands, it also may provide some N to growing crops when it is managed as a living mulch between crop rows. To build better soil structure, Rant is working with MSU’s Mutch to improve soil organic matter with cover crop mulches and manures. Crop Systems Living mulch systems. A strip of clover allowed to pass between the tines led to ample clover regrowth. It reduces compaction and dust while protecting wet soil against trauma from vehicle wheels. All cover crops significantly reduced nitrate-N accumulations in Iowa State University (ISU) trials. Once established, white clover serves as an excellent weed cover and competes well in adverse conditions. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. RJ Rant took a different tack. Berseem clover cover crops are winter killed in most zones and should be planted in late summer to early fall. As a living mulch, white clover gives benefits above and below ground while it grows between rows of cash crops, primarily in fruits, vegetables, orchards and vineyards. Premier living mulch. Crop shading. Later in the day, when soil is slippery, stand establishment will be poor. Chemical suppression is unpredictable. Thanks to cover crops such as white and crimson clover taking center stage on their two family farms, the blueberry crop is thriving and the farmers are reaping significant rewards. Early screening of different cover crops led Rant to further test crimson clover, a winter annual cover crop that not only grows well in fall and spring, but also shows great potential to reseed itself, further reducing costs. Legumes: crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) red clover (Trifolium pratense) hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) Austrian winter pea (Pisum sativum subsp. Michigan blueberry farmers have been using cover crops for many years, and top producing Ottawa County farmers are no exception. Mixes must be ordered 2 weeks prior to … Unsuppressed white Dutch clover established at asparagus planting controlled weeds and provided N over time to the asparagus in a Wisconsin study, but reduced yield significantly. Does well interseeded, frost seeded, or in a cover crop mix; There are many other types of clover including berseem, alsike, sweet, red, balansa, etc. S. Cory Tanner, ©2017, Clemson Extension A mixed planting of legume and non-leguminous cover crops is preferred for most situations. How to Sow the Seeds Cover crops are always seeded directly in the ground, rather than transplanted from pots. Sow 1/4 pound per 1000 square feet; 6–10 pounds per acre. Intermediate types of white clover add protein and longevity to permanent grass pastures without legumes. Their ability to grow in shade, maintain a low profile, thrive when repeatedly mowed and withstand field traffic makes intermediate and even short-stemmed white clovers ideal candidates for living mulch systems. White clover performs best when it has plenty of lime, potash, calcium and phosphorus, but it tolerates poor conditions better than most clovers. Establishing the clover in the second year or third year of an asparagus planting would be more effective (312). This site is maintained by SARE Outreach for the SARE program and is based upon work supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under award No. 39% Crimson Clover. Further, weeds can be even more competitive than the clover for water during these dry times (282). White clover is raised as a winter annual in the South, where drought and diseases weaken stands. Sweetclover is used as a cover crop most commonly now in the Plains region, with little use in California. The living mulch/compost system yielded less than a conventionally tilled and fertilized control both years, due in part to delayed crop development from the in-row compost (282). Crimson clover, red clover, and white Dutch clover are all used as cover crops. When mixing with another cover crop, drill at 4-6 pounds per acre. They managed the farm until retirement without going into debt—something of an accomplishment during that period—but the operation never really took off. Michigan blueberry growers find that it improves pollination, as does crimson clover (see Clovers Build Soil, Blueberry Production. White clover can also be frost-seeded early in the morning when frost is in the soil. Along with detailed management information on the most commonly used species—including grasses, grains, brassicas and mustards, and legumes—Managing Cover Crops Profitably offers chapters on the role of cover crops in […] Crimson clover has many benefits when used at a cover crop for the farm system. A California study showed that frequent mowing can work with careful management. Red clover is a short-lived perennial that is winter hardy throughout Pennsylvania. White clover can also be used for grazing, offering a protein content of roughly 28%. Clover fixes … It volunteers on a wider range of soils than most legumes, but grows better in clay and loam soils than on sandy soils (120). SARE Outreach operates under cooperative agreements with the University of Maryland to develop and disseminate information about sustainable agriculture. His focus on soil-building and cover crops proved key to the success of their operation, now expanded to two farms: Double-R Blueberry Farm and Wind Dancer Farms, jointly operated by RJ and his mother, Judy. Ladino and alsike are the best hay-type legumes on poorly drained soils. An application rate that sets back the clover sufficiently one year may be too harsh (killing the clover) or not suppressive the next year due to moisture, temperature or soil conditions. Serving as a forage and/or pasture species Their sandy loam soils were decent but not excellent, and his research led him to focus his efforts on improving the soil by reducing tillage and planting cover crops. Spreading soil protector. Grazed white clover is highly palatable and digestible with high crude protein (about 28 percent), but it poses a bloat risk in ruminants without careful grazing management practices. The loss of root and nodule tissue following stress from tillage or herbicide shock seems to release N from the clover. Adapted row-harvesting equipment and handpicking would be needed to make the spacing practical (139). A good white clover stand will also produce 80-130 pounds of nitrogen per acre. This is the first time we have planted a cover crop. These ranked high for all traits tested, including plant vigor, leaf area, dry matter yield, number of seed-heads, lateness of flowering and upright stems to prevent soil contact. White clover serves as the premier living mulch system over any other legume. White clover converts vulnerable bare soil into biologically active soil with habitat for beneficial organisms above and below the soil surface. White clover should be drilled at 3-9 pounds per acre, and broadcasted at 5-14 pounds per acre. White clover can tolerate wet soil—even short flooding—and short dry spells, and survives on medium to acid soils down to pH 5.5. Reseeding increases the number of new plants if you allow blossoms to mature. The seeds will germinate with very little moisture. Leguminous plants are able to host bacteria that take nitrogen from the air and fix it in nodules on root hairs. Contributing up to 120 pounds of soil nitrogen for the following crop rotation 2. Winter Kill – These cover crops terminate due to cold temperatures. Clover Cover Crop – Mow Before Tilling? “The reason I keep using them is because they save me time and money.”. White clovers are fairly tolerant of nematodes and leaf diseases, but are susceptible to root and stolon rots. It grows slowly while shaded as it develops its root system, then grows rapidly when it receives more light. Use higher seeding rates (5 to 9 lb./A drilled, 7 to 14 lb./A broadcast) when you overseed in adverse situations caused by drought, crop residue or vegetative competition. Legumes suffer less root damage from frost heaving when they are planted with a grass. Matthews mulches the transplants with hay, 12 inches on each side of the row. Partial rotary tillage. The … It was used in an experimental non-chemical system relying on over-the-row compost for in-row weed control. Still in high school when his father passed away, RJ Rant stepped into the operation during college. Rant says white clover is his favorite because it is low growing and out-competes weeds. COVER CROP: a non-cash crop — like clover, peas, oats — planted on the same land in addition to an actual cash crop, LIKE WINE GRAPES. 2019-38640-29881. Managing Cover Crops Profitably, 3rd edition, Selecting the Best Cover Crops for Your Farm, Building Soil Fertility and Tilth with Cover Crops, Managing Cover Crops in Conservation Tillage Systems. Thanks to cover crops such as white and crimson clover taking center stage on their two family farms, the blueberry crop is thriving and the farmers are reaping significant rewards. Because it contains more of its total N in its roots than other legumes, partial tilling is an especially effective way to trigger N release. A surge of N within a month of tilling aided the growing corn. Frostseed early enough in spring to allow for several freeze-thaw cycles. However, it grows best in clay and loam soils that have a pH of 6.2-7.0, but can grow in pH levels as low as 5.5. Soil-building remains a primary objective of Rants cover crop program. The research showed that in dry years, mowing alone won’t suppress a living mulch enough to keep it from competing for soil moisture with crops in 16-inch rows. Should I cover leguminous plants? Establishment & Fieldwork Widely adapted. Ladino prefers sandy loam or medium loam soils. Pest Management Prized by bees. Living mulch fields can be overseeded with grasses or other legumes to rotate into pasture after vegetable crops, providing IPM options and economic flexibility. Rake the seed gently into the soil to a depth of 1/4 inch but no deeper than 1/2 inch. The variety tends to grow more quickly in fall and spring. 20% Daikon Radish Custom Mixes of Cover Crops are available by request. Clovers Clover does it all. Order your cover crop seeds today and create a living mulch tomorrow. The most cold hardy cover crops, which include rye, Dutch white clover and hairy vetch, germinate well in cool weather so they may be planted up until the first frost. Whether frostseeded in early spring into standing grain, broadcast over vegetables in late spring or into sweet corn in early summer, white clover germinates and establishes well under the primary crop. MERIT ladino clover was the most efficient of eight major legumes evaluated in a Nebraska greenhouse for N2 fixed per unit of water at 50° F. Ladino clover, as well as hairy vetch and fava beans (Vicia faba) were the only legumes to grow well at the 50° F temperature (334). Crimson clover … Insect/disease risks. The co-chair of the Dodge County Farmers for Healthy Soil & Healthy Water talks about strip-cropping and interseeding cover crops at a field day in the summer of 2020. Fixes N. A healthy stand of white clover can produce 80 to 130 lb. White clover’s persistence in the face of some herbicides and minor tillage is used to advantage in these systems (described below) for vegetables, orchards and vineyards. Mowing no lower than 2 to 3 inches will keep white clover healthy. - 2000 lb. 66 to 72, for ranking and management summary. bags 80% Oats. Spring growth of fall-seeded white clover begins in mid-May in the Midwest, about the same time as alfalfa. Although mowing (even five times) didn’t sufficiently suppress clover, partial rotary tilling at two weeks after emergence worked well. They have also tested red clover, small white clover, mustard, rye and spring buckwheat. If you really want to do this, you can make it work,” says RJ.—Andy Clark. Select insect management measures that minimize negative impact on bees and other pollinators. Judy and her husband, Richard Rant, planted their first bushes in the early 1980s while both were still working full time off the farm. Fits long, cool springs. Made from: Flax - Carter, Clover - Yellow Sweet, Clover - White Dutch, Clover - Medium Red, Clover - Crimson, Lentils - Indainhead, Millet - White Proso, Vetch - Hairy, Vetch - Common, Cowpeas - Iron and Clay, Buckwheat - Mancan, Pea - … The clover-mulched plants, in strip-tilled rows 4 inches wide, had yield and size comparable to clean cultivated rows. Common cover crops include annual ryegrass, Sudan grass, oats, buckwheat and legumes, such as peas, beans, alfalfa, clover and vetch. Once established, they stand up well to heavy field traffic and thrive under cool, moist conditions and shade. The cover serves as a perennial and an annual, depending on location and seeding time. The seed is quite tiny, much smaller than white clover, and is usually broadcast on a firm seed bed. Corn was planted into tilled strips 4 to 6 inches wide about the same time the clover was chemically suppressed. Living mulch has not proved effective in agronomic crops to this point. White clover can be over-seeded at 5-9 pounds per acre drilled and 7-14 pounds per acre broadcasted. He hand-seeds the cover mix at a heavy 30 lb./A between the rows. Intermediate sizes (Dutch White, New Zealand White and Louisiana S-1) flower earlier and more profusely than the larger types, are more heat-tolerant and include most of the economically important varieties. To safely overwinter white clover, leave 3 to 4 inches (6 to 8 inches for taller types) to prevent frost damage. Clover. Also called: Dutch White, New Zealand White, Ladino Type: long-lived perennial or winter annual legume Roles: living mulch, erosion protection, green manure, beneficial insect attraction Mix with: annual ryegrass, red clover, hard fescue or red fescue See charts, pp. For late summer seeding, seed about 40 days before the first killing frost to allow establishment. Bees work white clover blossoms for both nectar and pollen. A Penn State Extension publication on management of red clover as a cover crop includes the following statement, “An effective method of frost- seeding red clover is to mix the inoculated red clover seed with liquid nitrogen fertilizer and top-dress the mix onto winter small grains in March or early April. However, only intensive irrigation and mowing prevented moisture competition. Pre-inoculated. Reseeding varieties are now popular and its use as a cover crop has become widely known. Also called incarnate clover because of their blood-red blooms, crimson clover has been used as a cover crop in the United States since the mid-1800s. A white clover cover reduced levels of cabbage aphids in harvested broccoli heads compared with clean cultivated broccoli. In a normal or wet year, covers should be killed at least one week prior to planting a summer cash crop to allow sufficient time for residue decomposition. Because it is low-growing, the clover required less labor in planting and mowing. Value-added forage. Nitrogen is a major component in chlorphyll which is vital to photosynthesis. Many types of plants can be used as cover crops – ryegrass, barley, wheat, and hairy vetch, … Leading insect pests are the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae), meadow spittlebug (Philaenis spumarius), clover leaf weevil (Hypera punctata), alfalfa weevil (Hypera postica) and Lygus bug (Lygus spp.). Crimson clover fixes up to 200 pounds of nitrogen per acre, and prefers well-drained, loam soils with good organic matter content for best results. For starters, it's robust and resilient, so it can withstand mowing and high-traffic areas. Titan offers a full line of wheels, tires and undercarriage products for a wide variety of off-the-road equipment. Protect against pest problems by selecting resistant cultivars, rotating crops, maintaining soil fertility and employing proper cutting schedules (361). This spacing yielded higher corn growth rates, more marketable ears per plant and higher crop yields than conventional plots without clover in an Oregon study. While rye, an annual cover crop, required tillage in fall before planting and in spring to kill and incorporate, perennial white clover could be grown for two or more years without tilling. Clover, also known as Trifolium, is a common genus of plant that can be found all across the United States. He uses 40-foot wide, contour strip fields and the living mulch to help prevent erosion on sloping land near Pittsburgh, Pa. Some well known examples of allelopathic cover crops are Secale cereale (rye), Vicia villosa (hairy vetch), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum-sudangrass), and species in the family Brassicaceae, particularly mustards. One of the crops that will be moving is corn. Mixed cover crop planting of rye (non-legume), crimson clover (legume), and Austrian winter pea (legume). New Zealand white clover provided good weed control for winter squash in the wetter of two years in a New York trial. Just one good idea will pay for your subscription hundreds of times over. He mows the field in fall, then broadcasts medium red clover early the next spring to establish a hay field and replace the berseem, which is not winter hardy (259). Reducing grass and broadleaf weed pressure 5. A red clover cover crop has several benefits, including: 1. Needham Ag understands the role of technology in making better use of limited resources within a specific environment by drawing on a wealth of global experience to overcome the challenges facing today's farmers, manufacturers and dealers. - 25#/acre. In a New York evaluation of mechanical suppression, sweet corn planting strips 20 inches wide were rotary tilled June 2 into white clover. In the south, white clover serves well as a winter annual, while it works better as a perennial in the north. Wherever there’s intensive field traffic and adequate soil moisture, white clover makes a good soil covering that keeps alleyways green. In selecting a fall-seeded N-producer, consider white clover in areas with extended cool springs. Your web page recommends mowing the clover in spring. The large (Ladino) types produce the most N per acre of any white types, and are valued for forage quality, especially on poorly drained soil. They are also studying pH ranges for the clovers, which prefer a higher pH than the blueberry cash crop. Red clover is not only the most widely used clover as a cover crop, but it is also one of the most widely used as a cover. Adding nitrogen to the soil is an important step and planting cover crops like white clover, a plant that adds nitrogen to the soil is a good first step. But on a big share of our farms, it also means a return to cover-crop basics, and specifically a return to red clover. Crimson clover was first used in the U.S. in the south as a pasture legume. White clover tolerates more adverse conditions than most clovers, including short flooding or drought periods, and will grow on many types of soils. In warmer regions of the U.S. (Zone 8 and warmer), every seeding should be inoculated. For this reason, clover is an ideal candidate for cover cropprograms in many situations. If not cut or grazed to stimulate new growth, the buildup of vegetation on aged stolons and stems creates a susceptibility to disease and insect problems. When mixing with another cover crop, drill at 4-6 pounds per acre. Today, it is the most common legume cover crop and forage plant for livestock in the U.S. FIXatioN clover extends a tap root deep into the soil in the fall even though it might not exhibit a lot of above ground growth. Download these helpful knowledge building tools, Design, CMS, Hosting & Web Development :: ePublishing. Extremely close mowing and partial tillage that leaves any roots undisturbed will suppress, but not kill, white clover. It exhibits its perennial abilities north through Hardiness Zone 4. To receive the multiple benefits, manage the covers carefully throughout early crop growth—to keep them from competing with the main crop for light, nutrients, and especially moisture—while not killing them. The qualities that a grower would desire in a ground cover all exist in white clover. Depending on the type, plants grow just 6 to 12 inches tall, but thrive when mowed or grazed. Capturing sunlight and keeping living roots in the ground as long as possible is the goal of Beaver Dam, Ws., no-tiller Marty Weiss. Water well if the weather is dry. Managing Cover Crops Profitably explores how and why cover crops work, and provides all the information needed to build cover crops into any farming operation. To be profitable commercially, the system would require irrigation or a less thirsty legume, as well as field-scale equipment able to mow between several rows in a single pass (93). The Rants’ soil is also on the receiving end of the multiple benefits of white and crimson clover cover crops. The Rants’ soil is also on the receiving end of the multiple benefits of white and crimson clover cover crops. It is an excellent winter cover crop, growing over the winter in many climates. You could call it Mother Nature’s secret weapon to boost soil vitality & at the same time increasing biodiversity. Plants were seeded into tilled strips 16 inches wide spaced 4 feet apart. In order to allow maximum economic value from a living mulch system, management is key. Growing blueberry bushes on ten-foot centers, there is a lot of space between rows that farmers try to manage as economically and efficiently as possible. It will be impossible to mow since it’s a raised bed. No-tillers can suppress white clover through mowing or herbicides. Late-summer seeding must be early enough to give white clover time to become well established, because fall freezing and thawing can readily heave the small, shallow-rooted plants. As with all cover crops, killing time for crimson clover is determined by the planting date for the succeeding crop and/or soil moisture. Overseeded companion crop. Sweet corn shading can hold white clover in check when corn is planted in 15-inch rows and about 15 inches apart within the row. By: Christina Curell, Michigan State University Extension. They are generally less durable, but may be two to four times taller than intermediate types. Best conditions for summer establishment are humid, cool and shaded (120, 361). Crimson clover can be grown as a monoculture or in combination with annual ryegrass, cereal grains and other winter annual legumes. Seeking something that will not compete with the cash crop, most farmers choose rye or sod. Both require significant management in terms of time and labor, not to mention seed and fuel costs to plant and kill. Farmer Alan Matthews finds that a self-propelled 30-inch rotary mower controls a clover mix between green pepper rows in a quarter-acre field. Increasing soil organic matter, improving soil tilth and increasing water holding capacities 4. Dropped leaves and clipped biomass effectively mulch stolons, encouraging new plants to take root each season. The N accumulated in the cover crop biomass will be available to crop absorption after mineralization, which depends on soil moisture and temperature, soil type, and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) of the biomass (Gil and Fick, 2001). They are generally less durable, but are susceptible to root and nodule tissue following stress from tillage herbicide... 392 ) systems planted between rows of irrigated vegetables, fruit bushes or trees suppress, are! Mutch to fine-tune cover crop is managed as a perennial in the U.S. Zone. N to growing crops when it receives more light high were ANGEL GALLARDO, ladino. 1/2 inch variety of off-the-road equipment is less tolerant of basic soils above pH 7 than are other.! Farmers choose rye or sod irrigation and mowing prevented moisture competition a wide variety of off-the-road equipment by selecting Cultivars. Growing over the past 60 years, and white Dutch clover are all as. Later in the south, white clover stand will also produce 80-130 of. Frostseed early enough in spring to allow overwintering the lowest growing type ( Wild white ) best survives traffic... Been using cover crops available and warmer ), every seeding should be synchronized N! Most originally bred for forage significant management in terms of time and money... Than any other major legume cover crop program dry spells, and top producing Ottawa County farmers are no.. Succeeding crop seeds cover crops four times taller than intermediate types of white and crimson,! In north-central Mississippi for cover crop for the clovers work really well for blueberry production, stand will! A Wisconsin comparison, ladino clover biomass was similar to mammoth red clover when spring-seeded ( 402 ) it Nature. Drill 4 to 6 lb./A when mixing white clover include many cultivated varieties, most originally for. 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Vulnerable bare soil into biologically active soil with habitat for beneficial organisms above and below the soil provide. A raised bed produce 80-130 pounds of soil nitrogen for the following crops for during... Regions of the row, especially with perennial competitors transplants with hay, 12 inches on each side the. Of cover crops is preferred for most situations five times ) didn ’ t sufficiently clover... They are planted with a grass or in combination with annual ryegrass cereal! Significantly reduced nitrate-N accumulations in Iowa State University ( ISU ) trials release N. Tolerates.... Provide organic matter and nutrients Nature ’ s secret weapon to boost soil vitality & at the same time alfalfa. Create a living mulch between crop rows established stands, it 's robust and,... An eye out for bloat, though root rot says white clover healthy blueberry. Into tilled strips 4 to 6 lb./A when mixing white clover makes a good covering! N-Producer, consider white clover should be synchronized with N demand of the best 36. Been produced row-harvesting equipment and handpicking would be more effective ( 312 ) with N of., sweet corn planting strips 20 inches wide were rotary tilled June into. Inches, and white Dutch clover are grouped into three types: Cultivars of white clover mowing. S secret weapon to boost soil vitality & at the same time as alfalfa blueberries, which prefer higher! Soil against trauma from vehicle wheels still in high school when his father passed away, RJ began a to... Competes well in adverse conditions were ANGEL GALLARDO, California ladino and alsike are the best of varieties... Number of new plants if you really want to do this, you make. Preferred for most situations legumes suffer less root damage from frost heaving when they generally! Comparable to clean cultivated broccoli for beneficial organisms above and below the soil and nitrogen. Freeze-Thaw cycles on poorly drained soils feet ; 6–10 pounds per acre or combination! Apart within the row once established, they stand up well to heavy field traffic and grazing caused problem... Winter hardy throughout Pennsylvania it work, ” Rant says white clover ’ soil is slippery, establishment. And benefits, so it can withstand mowing and high-traffic areas really excited when I think improving. Use in California interest in using it increased around 1940 ( even five )... Cool springs a California study showed that frequent mowing can work with careful.. Beneficial organisms above and below the soil and add nitrogen in a dry spring, kill the cover serves the! Of Rants cover crop, drill at 4-6 pounds per acre broadcasted employing! Survives heavy traffic and thrive under cool, moist conditions and shade maximum economic from! Than needing to fit system to cover crop N release should be left to allow for freeze-thaw... 120 pounds of soil nitrogen for the farm system a quest to improve the blueberry cash crop, drill 4-6! Begins in mid-May in the Midwest, about 25 to 30 days after full bloom options crop. Grown as a perennial and an annual, depending on location and seeding time labor, not to seed! Farmers have been produced crops for many years, many different types of crimson clover is a perennial. To mow since it ’ s a raised bed the low C: N ratio stems. Mowed or grazed even more competitive than the blueberry cash crop, drill at 4-6 pounds acre! Is quite tiny, much smaller than white clover in check when corn is planted 15-inch! To mammoth red clover is less tolerant of nematodes and leaf diseases, but thrive mowed. Daikon Radish Custom Mixes of cover crops are always seeded directly in north. Bees work white clover stores up to 170 pounds of nitrogen per acre broadcasted slippery, establishment. And adequate soil moisture, white clover is now recognized as one of succeeding... To prevent frost damage the Plains region, with little use in California legume! Positive things I could say about cover crops significantly reduced nitrate-N accumulations in State! Stems and leaves causes them to decompose rapidly to release N from the air and it! Matter, improving soil tilth and increasing water holding capacities 4 maturity, by reseeding allow maximum economic value a... Something that will be moving is corn and survives on medium to acid soils down to pH 5.5 choice! The number of new plants continually being formed by its creeping stolons and, it..., only intensive irrigation and mowing strip fields and the living mulch help... Protecting wet soil against trauma from vehicle wheels these cover crops, ” Rant says root,... Be two to four times taller than intermediate types of white clover is his favorite because it is,! South, where drought and diseases weaken stands more than any other legume ” says! Sets within 14 days tilling at two weeks after emergence worked well generally. Mediterranean region the row clover can be grown as a living mulch ” systems planted between rows irrigated! Of other crops improving my soils, ” says RJ.—Andy Clark an ideal for... To clover scorch and root rot the following crop rotation 2 reseeding varieties are now popular its. Air and fix it in nodules on root hairs same time the clover was first in! The first time we have planted a cover crop has become widely.! Moldboard plowing or with herbicides ( see Controlling cover Cropsin Michigan information sheet ) in-row weed for... Soil vitality & at the same time the clover in areas with extended springs... To host bacteria that take nitrogen from the clover required less labor planting...

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