obligation attached to Schengen membership, more generous political and economic offer. Our dossier illustrates different perspectives on the European Commission’s proposal, with contributions from our foreign offices and partners in the EU and beyond. This sobering pact only confirms once again for many Tunisians that the EU migration policy is a one-way affair. Europe needs a strong Africa, but will it work to achieve one? In contrast to many declarations that Italy should not be left to face the challenges of mass boat arrivals from North Africa alone, the New Pact's proposals if anything renew the obsolete “Dublin system”. https://www.saveurope.eu. If the EU’s internal solidarity mechanisms remain in deadlock, the Union will have to continue to rely only on co-operation with third countries. An outbreak of coronavirus would be devastating. 10117 Berlin But it relies on too many weak links. The Commission said 2.4 million migrates received residence permits in the EU last year, compared to 140,000 irregular arrivals. The EU should revisit a 2018 proposal which also established a three-tier-system, but proposed mandatory quotas as a last resort and did not talk about return sponsorship, instead requiring EU countries to chip in with either money or resources like police officers or border guards. The EU’s partners fear being stuck with large numbers of foreign nationals that transited through their territory. Some officials also suggest that the present arrangement allows Italy to turn a blind eye to people moving northwards when the figures become too high). The European Commission's new migration plans are more likely to succeed than previous attempts at reforming the system. The study analysis to which extend third countries can be considered "safe" and NGO rescue vessels can be obliged to disembark rescued migrants and refugees in places which are unsafe. New Pact on Migration and Asylum Migration is a complex issue, with many facets that need to be weighed together. In the months … Neither are right. The EU has long sought to step up cooperation with non-EU states on migration issues, including action against migrant smuggling. But the idea could backfire. 24 Sep 2020. Making migration deals with countries of origin and transit will be tricky. An interview with MEP and migration policy spokesperson of the Greens/EFA group at the European Parliament, Erik Marquardt, on the future of European asylum and migration. Migration was one of the most toxic dossiers under Juncker’s mandate. Secondly, the pact makes little allowance for how the COVID-19 pandemic is going to impact EU’s migration and asylum policies. Copyright is held by the Centre for European Reform. The new solidarity mechanism is a clever negotiating tactic: by giving countries the choice between taking asylum seekers in or helping to return failed applicants to their countries, the Commission hopes to call the bluff of the governments which have so far refused to accept people and have spent years saying migrants should be sent back home. The New Pact on Migration and Asylum, yet another obstacle for Senegalese? In the last few months, more than 500 migrants have lost their lives trying to leave West Africa for the Canary Islands and thus Europe, in a terrible repeat of the situation of 2005/2006. Many member-states are also unlikely to agree to visa liberalisation with third countries, not least because overstaying visas is a common way for migrants to enter the EU. Closed Ports, Dubious Partners: The EU’s Policy of Outsourcing Responsibility in the Mediterranean, 2 June 2020, "Get Lost!" It is unclear how member-states with little experience of returns, minimal diplomatic presence in countries of origin and transit, and a mixed record of respecting the rule of law can make that happen. In April, the European Court of Justice ruled that Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic had breached EU law by refusing to accept asylum seekers from Greece and Italy. Yet, this does not mean that these actors have agreed to the pact. Publications, research projects, news & events. One faux pas and the whole system may collapse like a house of cards. T +49 (30) 285 34-0 Border processing centres for asylum seekers, more cooperation with third countries, an increased focus on repatriation, mandatory responsibility-sharing between EU member states, and an end to the Dublin regulation: the European Commission, the EU’s executive body, today released its long awaited New Pact on Migration and Asylum.. In Tunisia, the EU Migration Pact is received with diplomatic silence from politicians, apathy from the Tunisian authorities and powerless indignation from the civil society. But they over-rely on the goodwill of both international partners and EU member-states. Since 2015, the EU and its Member States have been moving away from an externalisation of migration control to an externalisation of their obligations to afford protection. While the Commission says partnerships should be “comprehensive, balanced and tailor-made”, its proposals emphasise increasing pressure on third countries so that they help with returns of migrants. But the concept of return sponsorship is politically dangerous and difficult to implement. Current EU migration policies' increased focus on returns raises concerns on the adequacy of such measures with EU standards and fundamental rights. Deciphering the European Union’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum. But past experience suggests this might not be very effective. This mirrors the 2016 EU agreement with Turkey, which paid out €3 billion to Ankara in order to host refugees in the Middle East, while making both sides unhappy. It turns out to replicate or exacerbate past failures in new packaging. Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic have already announced their opposition to the New Pact on Migration and Asylum. Migration was arguably one of the most toxic dossiers during Jean-Claude Juncker’s 2014-19 mandate. At the same time, the EU only offers its neighbours a relatively limited upgrading of trade ties in exchange for extensive and politically costly alignment with the Union’s acquis. Return is arguably the most difficult part of any migration policy, as it largely depends on collaboration with countries of origin and transit. Ten reflections on a sovereignty-first Brexit. European Return Policies in Practice, 1 October 2020, © Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung e.V. The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) is an intergovernmentally negotiated agreement, prepared under the auspices of the United Nations, that describes itself as covering "all dimensions of international migration in a holistic and comprehensive manner".. This sobering pact only confirms once again for many Tunisians that the EU migration policy is a one-way affair. Martin Banks is a senior reporter at the Parliament Magazine. The New Pact on Migration and Asylum is a complex mix of proposals for policies and legislation, with diverging levels of ambition. There are more challenges for the EU just around the corner: Europe’s neighbourhood faces destabilisation as a result of the economic hit from the COVID-19 pandemic, which will probably lead to an increase in migration flows to the EU. Its success largely depends on collaboration with countries of origin and transit. But it could take a long time before all member states agree. Von der Leyen’s pact is just the beginning of a long process. To stop the Migration Pact, the mobilisation of us all is required in order to confront the technocrats in Brussels. Brought forward by a week, the timing seems an attempt to pacify the outrage over the devastating fire at … While the EU tried to reform its internal solidarity system it set up arrangements with Turkey, Libya and other countries of origin and transit that reduced flows. But it relies on too many weak links. Yet, what are the key challenges facing migrants and refugees in Turkey, particularly challenges in accessing healthcare services during the pandemic? This publication highlights the problems and difficulties returnees face in Afghanistan, Syria, Tunisia, Senegal and Kosovo. Migration and asylum policy à la carte: a free hand for the obstructionists, Erik Marquardt MEP: “Migration management has become a euphemism for repelling refugees”, Paper doesn’t blush: The Commission presents a plan that does nothing to address the realities at the EU borders, You can’t build on that: Externalisation as the cornerstone of the EU Pact on Migration and Asylum. The EU’s offers of visa liberalisation are conditional on agreeing to the readmission of third country nationals as well as a country’s own citizens. The new Pact on Migration and Asylum calls for more such activities as part of "mutually beneficial partnerships with key third … Neither the Senegalese government nor the media have reacted to the publication of the New Pact on Migration and Asylum. This suggests that the EU is unlikely to secure much co-operation from its partners unless it gives them more tangible benefits. The Commission has come up with a solution that it believes will be palatable to all member-states. Commission Recommendation on legal pathways to protection in the EU: promoting resettlement, humanitarian admission and other complementary pathways 23 September 2020 English (251.6 KB - PDF) Ongoing Political Incentives but no Responsibility-Sharing for Turkey in the EU’s New Pact. Repeated attempts to fix the system over the past five years have failed because they mainly relied on EU countries being forced to take asylum seekers from the overwhelmed member-states. This is the result of months of consultations with member states and other institutions in an attempt to reconcile the different perspectives in migration management. These include suggestions for dealing with asylum seekers once they arrive at the EU’s borders; plans to work with countries of origin and transit to stop people from coming in the first place; and arrangements for returning those who fail to obtain asylum. The Commission’s proposal is broad and leaves room for negotiation. The new migration pact proposes a ‘permanent solidarity mechanism’ tailored to two different scenarios: normal and crisis times. One of the EU’s biggest problems at the peak of the 2015-16 migration crisis was that frontline countries could not deal with the overwhelming number of asylum seekers arriving at their borders. The EU Migration Policy: More Solidarity Is Needed! The compact was formally endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly on 19 December 2018. That process will be surely contentious. The Commission wants to place migration management at the heart of the EU’s foreign policy. EU countries can sponsor returns by, for example, chartering flights, liaising with third country governments or giving money to those willing to leave voluntarily. The Commission’s plans focus on the EU using its leverage to apply pressure to countries that refuse to co-operate on returns. With climate change looming, anxiety over immigration from the Global South is increasingly fuelled by apocalyptic fears of ecological breakdown. In Tunisia, the EU Migration Pact is received with diplomatic silence from politicians, apathy from the Tunisian authorities and powerless indignation from the civil society. The political incentive for migration-sceptic governments will be to put money and effort into returns. In this policy paper “A Local Turn for European Refugee Politics” the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung puts forward proposals for a more active role of the municipalities in refugee and asylum policy. To be realistic, any reform should include a menu of options allowing EU countries to save face. Task Force for Lesvos. It will be difficult for the EU to persuade migrants’ countries of origin to increase co-operation on returns, as it can be unpopular for the EU’s partners and undermine governments’ domestic legitimacy. @EUCouncil must achieve a true balance of solidarity and responsibility. With the New Pact on Migration and Asylum the European Commission intends to square the circle – but does not succeed. It has already taken steps to make visa policy conditional on co-operation on returns, and wants to make use of leverage from “all relevant EU policies and tools” that are of interest to partners, like development aid and trade. A new migration pact, presented by European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen on September 23, is meant to reform Europe’s overburdened and fragmented asylum system.The goal is to build a system of "fair sharing of responsibility and solidarity" among EU countries, the European Commission (EC) says, and, by applying clear rules, to provide "certainty and … Not all countries are the same. But migration is as old as time. In Tunisia, political provisions are being put into place and emergency plans negotiated to deal with migrants and refugees on their way to Europe. The tragic loss of a child’s life hardly made an impression on the international media or public discourse in Greece. Read more: Opinion: EU migration pact is victory for the nationalists. European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen announced that the EU's long-awaited new pact on migration and asylum will be unveiled next Wednesday. It is a chance for the EU to realise its commitment to the Global Compact on Refugees and the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration by implementing them in Europe. But migration politics continue to be toxic. This will make the system biased towards returns and against real burden-sharing, rewarding those with the most extreme views. Ursula von der Leyen is not about to make the same mistake. Should the Pact be adopted, it will be the end of Europe. One faux pas and the whole system may collapse like a house of cards. Moreover, it often means losing out on remittances from citizens in the EU, which are usually much greater in magnitude than the funding provided by the EU. Many of them moved on without filing an asylum claim, hoping to reach their final destinations in northern European countries like Germany and Sweden. The plan also covers search and rescue missions at sea, where member-states will have to commit to take in a share of those disembarked or offer help in-kind. Insights from Serbia - a buffer zone for the EU’s illegal pushback policy? With a package that ranges from an attempt to solve disputes over refugee quotas to improving legal pathways to Europe, the Commission wants to end years of migration policy mishaps. His Commission tried, and failed, to get member-states behind a much needed reform of the Union’s migration policy, after over a million people came irregularly to the EU in 2015. After years of impasse, the European Commission unveiled its plans for overhauling the EU’s migration and asylum system on September 23rd. The new package of the European Union Commission on Migration and Asylum has not been as welcomed and applauded as the Commission might have excepted. The risk with broad church plans, of course, is that they may end up pleasing no one. It is of vital importance that rescuees are brought to a “Place of Safety”. Civil liberties committee members questioned how the new Asylum and Migration Pact proposed by the European Commission would function during a debate on 24 September. The Covid-19 pandemic affects different groups of people differently. However, the close cooperation with FRONTEX remains a cause for concern. In 2006 alone, more than 32,000 migrants set off on the perilous journey from the coast of West Africa hoping to reach the Canary Islands across the sea. Despite its tough public rhetoric, the Polish government might turn out to be more flexible behind closed doors regarding the New Pact, to prevent embarrassing defeats on issues that are far more important from a domestic policy point of view, such as the rule of law. This is because, in the case of large scale arrivals from a war-torn country, most people would qualify for asylum as opposed to return; but also because accepting that some countries would only return failed asylum seekers would be a tough political sell for countries like Germany, which has insisted on the need for a European solidarity system that emphasises integration. But if the EU wants to secure greater co-operation, it should make its partners a more generous political and economic offer. September 29, 2020. Aegean chronicles: A reporter’s confrontation with Europe’s failures and moral imperative, No Sound Basis for Solidarity but an Opportunity to Rethink Asylum, Dublin Forever - Nothing New for the South, Nothing New in the North: The EU’s New Pact will not change much for Morocco, Poland wants no refugees – NGO’s critical look at the New Pact on Migration and Asylum, Migration in Senegal: Societal visions instead of criminalisation and the rhetoric of deterrence. Yet, as the Juncker Commission learned, there is simply no chance of forcing mandatory relocation on sceptical member-states. National governments and the European Parliament need to work out which of the plan’s elements they agree with, and, most importantly, which ones they will be able to sell to voters. European leaders have also cut the EU’s budget for external action from the Commission’s original proposals for the period 2021-27, giving themselves fewer resources to work with. At first sight, it stands more chance of surviving than previous attempts, as the Commission has made sure to include something for everybody. Will the "New Pact" become the coherent strategy on migration the EU needs? The European Commission’s newly released Pact on Migration and Asylum aims to address the imbalances in member states’ burdens related to migrant arrivals and streamline the asylum process. The EU can improve the situation by reaching a new agreement with Ankara, so that it continues to help Turkey care for the nearly four million refugees it is hosting, in exchange for resuming co-operation. the New EU Pact on Migration and Asylum Sergio Carrera Abstract This Policy Insight examines the new Pact on Migration and Asylum in light of the principles and commitments enshrined in the United Nations Global Compact on Refugees (UN GCR) and the EU Treaties. Erik Marquardt got a first-hand impression of the inhuman conditions in the Moria refugee camp, where more than 20,000 people live in the most miserable conditions. Return is arguably the most difficult part of any migration policy. INTRODUCTION. Choosing Merkel's successor: None of the above? Even the EU’s comparatively reliable migration partners, like Turkey or Morocco, are becoming more assertive and less willing to help. Once the Balkan route shut and this was no longer possible, those left in Greece ended up in makeshift, crammed camps. You may not copy, reproduce, republish or circulate in any way the content from this publication except for your own personal and non-commercial use.Any other use requires the prior written permission of the Centre for European Reform. On 23 September, the European Commission tabled the “New Pact on Migration and Asylum”. For Brussels, this plan is about a long term solution, so when the next wave hits, Europe is prepared. The EU's New Migration Pact is a Step in the Right Direction. The three pillars of the EU Migration Pact are to: It is, however, possible to argue that asylum seekers, migrants and refugees scattered across the globe are among the most vulnerable groups to the outbreak. The Commission’s new migration pact is a well-considered plan that may manage to gather something of a consensus. Camino Mortera-Martinez is a senior research fellow and Luigi Scazzieri is a research fellow at the Centre for European Reform. Looking ahead to the future of the EU asylum system, what is the impact of Covid-19 on solidarity within the European Union? But if the EU wants to secure greater co-operation, it should make its partners a more generous political and economic offer. The Pact is an opportunity to improve asylum systems in Europe, to greatly expand safe and legal channels, and to mobilise EU support for inclusion. By Martin Banks . Failed asylum seekers will be quickly returned if unsuccessful – and returns are the most important element of the Commission’s proposal to break the standoff. European migration policy through a New Pact on Migration and Asylum. The overbearing focus is on preventing access to EU territory as if the success of the EU’s asylum and migration system was measured by its efficacy in “keeping numbers down”. F +49 (30) 285 34-109 After years of erratic and uncoordinated actions, the European Commission has revealed the long-awaited New Pact on Migration and Asylum to “propose a fresh start” on this highly politicised policy priority. Schumannstraße 8 The fate of the Migration Pact will be in the hands of EU member countries and their parliaments. Is Czechia finally ready to show some solidarity? A debate on the dysfunctionality and possible solutions. The New Pact does not change this. Return rates are very low (in 2019, only 29 per cent of those ordered to leave the EU did so) and differ widely from country to country. A number of operational initiatives have been ongoing for some time, as set out in this document (pages 10 and 11, pdf).. How should policymakers respond to the reality and future prospect of vast populations being displaced and relocated in an era of global heating? The Moroccan government can live happily with the New Pact on Migration and Asylum. ": European Return Policies in Practice, Current EU migration policies' increased focus on, raises concerns on the adequacy of such measures with, A Local Turn for European Refugee Politics, Places of Safety in the Mediterranean: The EU’s Policy of Outsourcing Responsibility, International Climate, Energy & Agriculture Policy, Nairobi Office - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia/Somaliland, Cape Town Office - South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Sarajevo Office - Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, North Macedonia, Prague Office - Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Belgrade Office - Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Washington, DC Office - USA, Canada, Global Dialogue, Santiago de Chile Office - Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, San Salvador Office - El Salvador, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mexico City Office - Mexico and the Caribbean, Energytransition - The Global Energiewende (EN). President Ursula von der Leyen is determined not to make the same mistake. Ηe was with his father and other asylum seekers onboard a dinghy that was shipwrecked. Reacting to the news, Marissa Ryan, Head of Oxfam’s EU office, said: “For many years, Europe has needed to reform its asylum system so that it protects people fleeing persecution and conflict in line with international law. A 6-year-old boy from Afghanistan drowned in November 2020 off the coast of Samos. An analysis from a legal perspective. The new solidarity mechanism recognises that mandatory quotas are, and will remain, a tough political sell. The Migration Pact will change forever both the direction of Europe and the lives of all citizens of the European nations. The situation at the EU’s borders will not improve unless the member-states act. Consequently, the Pact will result in suboptimal policy outcomes as it does not cater for the migration realities on the ground, that is, it fails to respond to the needs of those member states that are most impacted by irregular migration. In mid-September 2020, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen spoke out strongly in favour of a human and humane approach to the common EU Asylum Policy. The latter will follow the EU’s usual asylum procedures, whereas the former will have their claims assessed at the border by national and EU border authorities. It revealed a European Union that is jammed by Member States’ disagreements and incapacity to be united. Winner of the Prospect 2015 Think Tank of the Year Award - UK International Affairs. However, migration to Europe won’t stop and the member states, sooner or later, will have to agree on the direction of migration policy. Assurance on returns and relocation is needed: Countries of first arrival cannot manage alone migration flows in name of Europe — Giuseppe Conte (@GiuseppeConteIT) September 23, 2020 The European Commission has today outlined a new pact on migration and asylum. Unless conditions in poor countries improve drastically, their citizens will continue to seek a better future elsewhere, even under the pretext of requiring international protection. As long as there is no real burden-sharing, member-states on the EU’s border will be incentivised to either let migrants go north or seal borders, keeping those migrants that make it through in very poor conditions. How coronavirus has worsened the plight of refugees in Tunisia, Migrants and Refugees in a Time of Pandemic: Access to Healthcare Services in Turkey, "Get Lost! Her lofty promises did not, however, survive very long. The Commission’s new migration pact is a well-considered plan that may manage to gather something of a consensus. The Pact, unveiled on Wednesday, is the Commission’s flagship initiative to create a comprehensive plan for managing migration. The Commission wants to increase co-operation by placing migration management at the heart of the EU’s relations with its partners, particularly in Africa. And the Austrian government has repeatedly opposed mandatory quotas, as it argues that they encourage more people to enter the EU. The commission announced the creation of a task force in order to improve the situation of refugees and migrants on the island of Lesvos. Co-operating on returns can be very unpopular for the EU’s partners, as it can undermine governments’ domestic legitimacy. Responding to the European Commission’s newly unveiled migration pact, Amnesty International’s EU Advocacy Director, Eve Geddie, said: “Pitched as a fresh start, this pact is, in reality, designed to heighten walls and strengthen fences. In developing the broader overhaul of asylum policy, the so-called Migration Pact, the Commission has similarly stressed a voluntary approach to solidarity, and the German presidency of the Council of the EU has been hoping to finally reach a unanimous political deal on at least some parts of the proposal, as an agreement has eluded the bloc since the 2015 migration … She is willing to propose a New Pact on migration and asylum that would get rid of the Dublin regulation. The Pact will thus promote securitisation in the Mediterranean without generating meaningful change. In Czechia, debates about the EU's New Pact focus only on border protection, return and detention, rather than discussing more relevant proposals on legal migration, integration and inclusion. The Migration Pact is an important step towards a truly EU migration policy. EU's new Migration Pact draws mixed reactions from MEPs and NGOs. As a result, arrivals are now at their lowest in six years. First, those governments the EU wishes to expose may realise that specialising in returns every time there is a crisis serves their anti-migrant, illiberal narrative all too well. The EU may have broken a deadlock, but it has agreed a pact on migration that cedes too much ground to nationalist sentiment. The safety of people who seek international protection or a better life, the concerns of countries at the EU’s external borders, which worry that migratory pressures will exceed their capacities and which need solidarity from others. As to the Commission’s plans to increase opportunities for legal migration to Europe, there is resistance from many member-states. PDF here The new European Pact on Migration and Asylum, published on 23 September 2020, begins with the recognition that “migration has been a constant feature of human history” and that “with a well-managed system, migration can contribute to growth, innovation and social dynamism”. "Yes, in fact we decided to forward the new migration pact to next week, the 23th of September," she said at a joint press conference with Germany's chancellor Angela Merkel. The new Pact on Migration and Asylum will face many challenges. Providing funding schemes to create jobs in migrants’ countries of origin is different to co-operating with failed states like Libya, which detains migrants in horrible conditions. Greece, Italy and, to a lesser extent, Malta’s failure to process asylum seekers as they arrived was the result of both a dysfunctional European system and their own deficiencies. Other EU countries are less loud but equally reluctant to revamp the system: successive Italian and Spanish governments have opposed reforms, as they benefit from current shortcomings (both countries have been relatively successful in curbing migration through bilateral deals with third countries, and prefer the status quo to more EU intervention. 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