It is also an excellent example of the classical revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagnes reign. The main function of the west section was potentially is to make the presence of the emperor or ruler's obvious, even if it was not present in person. Considered a masterpiece of Carolingian architecture because of its intricately designed core, Aachen Cathedral also exhibits notable elements of the Gothic style. (initial capital letter) a native or inhabitant of the Palatinate. It was designed by Odo of Metz, who modeled it after the Byzantine-style church of San Vitale (consecrated 547) in Ravenna, Italy. The building he designed has a simple exterior and a complex interior, with a double shell octagonal dome resting on heavy piers, a two-story elevation, and elaborate revetment[4] and decoration. Above the main altar, and facing the royal throne, is an image of Christ in Majesty. It depicts the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse bearing crowns and standing around the base of the dome. The construction, including barrel and groin vaults and an octagonal cloister-vault in the dome, reflects late Roman, or Pre-Romanesque, practices rather than the Byzantine techniques employed at San Vitale, and its plan simplifies the complex geometry of the Ravenna building. The presumed imperial throne systems are sometimes derived from the Carolingian Palatine Chapel of Aachen Cathedral, where, however, proved there was a throne only in the Ottonian period. Marble throne believed to have been used by Charlemagne (reigned 768–814), in the Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany. Updates? The most important surviving examples of Carolingian architecture are exhibited in the chapel. The plan and decoration of the building combines elements of Classical, Byzantine and Pre-Romanesque, and opulent materials as the expression of a new royal house, ruled by Charlemagne. The History of the Parish identifies with that of the Palatine Chapel, meaning the inferior Church of S. Maria of Hierusalem and the properly said advanced Palatine Chapel head. Holy Roman Emperors continued to be crowned in the Palatine Chapel until 1531. The Sainte-Chapelle ("Holy Chapel") is a royal chapel in the Gothic style located within the Palais de Justice complex on the Ile de la Cité n the center of Paris, France. [1], As part of Aachen Cathedral, the chapel is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[2]. ( initial capital letter) one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. The Palatine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Palatina), is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily situated on the first floor at the center of the Palazzo Reale in Palermo, southern Italy. [7] The upper gallery of the chapel was the royal space, with a special throne area for the king, then emperor, which let onto the liturgical space of the church and onto the atrium outside as well. The Palatine Chapel at Aachen is the most well-known and best-preserved Carolingian building. The finest extant Carolingian building is not a church, but a chapel: Palatine Chapel, a sixteen-sided building commissioned by Charlemagne for his palace at Aachen. It is considered the oldest (and for a long time the largest) vaulted building north of the Alps. ... (Figure 3.13) The Palatine Chapel (c. 796-798 CE, consecrated 805 CE) was part of the palace complex Charlemagne had built at Aachen, in what is now Germany. It is famous for its Renaissance frescoes, the most important of which are the frescoes by Michelangelo on the ceiling and on the west wall behind the altar. In 936 Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Ottonian dynasty, took advantage of the chapel's close association with Charlemagne and held his coronation as King of Germany there. Charlemagne began the construction of the Palatine Chapel around 792, along with the building of the rest of the palace structures. The penny, then, along with dendrochronological finds and the literary records of Einhard and Sigebert of Gembloux, is of great significance for dating the beginning of construction of the Carolingian Palatine Chapel, which according to this latest discovery can only be dated "soon after 795." By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The architect responsible, Odo of Metz, is named in a tenth-century inscription around the dome: Insignem hanc dignitatis aulam Karolus caesar magnus instituit; egregius Odo magister explevit, Metensi fotus in urbe quiescit. Palatine Chapel, highlighting the interwoven elements of religious and political power and purpose. Although the palace itself no longer exists, the chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral. The Palatine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Palatina), is the royal chapel of the Norman palace in Palermo, Sicily.This building is a mixture of Byzantine, Norman and Fatimid architectural styles, showing the tricultural state of Sicily during the 12th century after Roger II's father and uncle conquered the island. Notable Structures and Items Much of the building's materials were salvaged from classical ruins in Italy. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Metz created the chapel for Emperor Charlemagne, who ruled during the second half of the eighth century. Later it was appropriated by the Ottonians and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531. Such structures in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Tur.) Describe the significance of value added to objects by complex artistic processes or by changing tastes in different eras. [1] In 1000, in what was most likely a symbolic exhibition, Otto III placed the tomb of Charlemagne in the chapel and paid homage to his remains. Palatine Chapel, German Pfalzkapelle, also called Palace Chapel, private chapel associated with a residence, especially of an emperor. Its construction, started in 1130, the year when Roger II became the first king of Sicily, was completed over a 15-year period and it was consacreted, according to an inscription in its dome, in 1143. The imperial chapel of Charlemagne, now forming the central component of the cathedral in Aachen, Germany, is the best-known surviving example of a palatine chapel. The east end had a square apse, and was originally flanked by two basilican structures, now lost but known through archaeology. The exact dates of the chapels construction are unclear, but we do know that this palace chapel was dedicated to Christ and the Virgin Mary by Pope Leo III in a ceremony in 805, five years after Leo promoted Charlemagne from king to Holy Roman Emperor. There is a sixteen-sided ambulatory with a gallery overhead encircling the central octagonal dome. Nothing more is known of him. In that year he wrote to Pope Hadrian I and requested "mosaic, marbles, and other materials from floors and walls" in Rome and Ravenna, for his palace. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. From the mid-14th century to 1414, the choir of the chapel was reconstructed in the Gothic style, with walls incorporating thousands of panes of glass. Multi-coloured marble veneer is used to create a sumptuous interior. Uses of octagons in churches also include lesser design elements, such as the octagonal apse of Nidaros Cathedral. The Palatine Chapel was contrasted between the years of 790 and 805 by architect Odo of Metz. The chapel was entered through a monumental atrium, to the west. Figure 3.13 | Aachen, Palace Chapel of Charlemagne. Later it was appropriated by the Ottonians and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531. Indeed, Charlemagne visited Ravenna three times, the first in 787. Author: User “Velvet” Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The bronze decoration is of extraordinarily high quality, especially the doors with lions heads and the interior railings, with their Corinthian order columns and acanthus scrolls. an important officer of an imperial palace. It is Aachen's major landmark and a central monument of the Carolingian Renaissance. Many of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary sources of the Byzantine period. Although the palace itself no longer exists, the chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral. The Palatine Chapel at Aachen is the most well-known and best-preserved Carolingian building. The chapel makes use of ancient spolia, conceivably from Ravenna (Einhard claimed they were from Rome and Ravenna), as well as newly carved materials. Many of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary sources of the Byzantine period. The Palatine Chapel, is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Sicily situated on the ground floor at the center of the Palazzo Reale in Palermo, southern Italy. The two-story plan of the Carolingian structure, a reflection of c. 800. It is also an excellent example of the classical revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagne’s reign. Also notable are the imperial box on the upper floor and the winding staircases that lead up to the twin towers. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}50°46′29″N 6°05′04″E / 50.7747°N 6.08444°E / 50.7747; 6.08444, History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palatine_Chapel,_Aachen&oldid=1000647075, Roman Catholic churches in North Rhine-Westphalia, Religious buildings and structures completed in 805, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2015, Articles with German-language sources (de), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 01:37. The cupola crowning the chapel’s dome rises to a height of 101.5 feet (30.9 metres). The chapel is a great symbol of multi-cultural cooperation. westwerk of Palatine Chapel- why is it important in the history of European church architecture with it's central plan, putting emphasis on the Western entrance really shows its significance and creates the idea of westwork why is the monastery plan of st. Gall so important for our understanding early Medieval architecture and monastic life? The original mosaic was reproduced in the 19th century with the same iconography as the original. The building is a centrally planned, domed chapel. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Palatine-Chapel-Aachen-Germany, Sacred Destinations - Aachen Cathedral, Germany. The Palatine Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne's Palace of Aachen in what is now Germany. Later, in the eighth and ninth centuries CE, Charlemagne (r. 768-814 CE) used pillaged porphyry columns inside arches on the upper level of his imperial chapel, a building intended for his own entombment. The Palatine Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne's Palace of Aachen in what is now Germany. inspired the impressive 12th-century Palatine Chapel (Cappella Palatina) of the Sicilian king Roger II at Palermo, Sicily, which combines features of Norman and Islamic architecture. Craftsmen of three different religious traditions worked alongside each other. Further, the narrative of the stained glass windows legitimised King Louis’s IX rule as being crucial to the faith of his kingdom. Palatine: [geographical name] hill in Rome, Italy, one of seven on which the ancient city was built — see aventine. The Palatine Chapel is the royal chapel of the Norman kings of Kingdom of Sicily situated on the first floor at the center of the Norman Palace in Palermo. It is Aachen's major landmark and a central monument of the Carolingian Renaissance. The chapel held the remains of Charlemagne. -served as the palace chapel to display Christian relics. A large-scale restoration program for the structure, including the nearly 600-year-old “glass house” choir, began in 1995 in anticipation of the 1,200th anniversary of the consecration of Charlemagne’s chapel; exterior restoration work on the cathedral was completed in 2006. Corrections? Every inch is inlaid with precious stones, giving the space a lustrous quality. The dome was decorated originally with a fresco, and later with mosaic. See Quattro Canti, meaning "four corners," which divides the city exactly into four parts. Octagon is also used as stop sign in English-speaking countries, as well as in most European countries. The plan and decoration owe much to the sixth-century Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna. The Palatine Chapel in Aachen is an early medieval chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne’s Palace of Aachen in what is now Germany. The central space in the Aachen Cathedral, the Carolingian Palatine Chapel, has a regular octagonal floorplan. The addition of a westwork to churches is one of the Carolingian contributions to Western architectural traditions. Palatinate definition is - the territory of a palatine. Archaeological significance The coin was probably deposited during the construction of the Palatine chapel, before the floor was completed. The Palatine Chapel, constructed by Odo of Metz, houses the burial site of Charlemagne, who was laid to rest in 814. These overlook the atrium of the church. In 1238, St Louis had already founded a palatine chapel adjoining the chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Yvelines), with only one storey, on which the plan of the upper chapel of the palais de la Cite is possibly based. With northern Europe deep into the intellectually vacuous dark ages, it is surprising to see a structure built with without advanced technologies stand for so long. [5] [6] Ulrike Hecker said, "The coin was found in the backfill from the excavation of the grave of 1910, which was made in an area of intact flooring. His Palatine Chapel, the famous octagon, is the core of the Aachen Cathedral. Sistine Chapel, papal chapel in the Vatican Palace that was erected in 1473–81 by the architect Giovanni dei Dolci for Pope Sixtus IV. Palatine Chapel, German Pfalzkapelle, also called Palace Chapel, private chapel associated with a residence, especially of an emperor. The chapel's well-lit interior is simply breathtaking. either of two districts of southwestern Germany once ruled by counts palatine of the Holy Roman Empire: the Rhenish Palatinate on the Rhine River east of Saarland and the Upper Palatinate on the Danube River around Regensburg — see rhineland-palatinate The main entrance is dominated by a westwork comprising the western facade including the entrance vestibule, rooms at one or more levels above, and one or more towers. Omissions? [3] It was consecrated in 805 by Pope Leo III in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is the curator of the volume Beat Brenk, historian and archeologist that reconstructs the meaning of the Palatine Chapel, the intentions of Ruggero and in its use over the centuries. The palatine chapel’s design as a shrine turned inward with symbolic allusion the Solomon’s Temple made Paris the new epicentre of Christianity. The Cathedral of Aachen was damaged by the Vikings in 881 and was restored in 983. A marble-slab throne, which was used for the coronations of 32 Holy Roman emperors in the period from 936 to 1531, is thought to be Carolingian. The chapel held the remains of Charlemagne. Although the palace itself no longer exists, the chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen Cathedral. The Palatine Chapel Commentary "The Palatine Chapel, built about 796-805 at Charlemagne's palace in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), is the preeminent surviving Carolingian structure. The dedication took place about twenty yea… The painted wooden ceiling of the Palatine Chapel, erected by Ruggero II immediately after his coronation in 1131, is the only monumental-scale pictorial cycle from the Fatimid period in the Mediterranean basin to have survived in its entirety. Also during the 15th century, several subsidiary chapels and a vestibule were added to the main structure, and the enlarged building was designated Aachen Cathedral. In the Baroque period, it was replaced by stucco. The Royal Palace awaits afterward, where you can visit a Jewel of Arab Norman art and also the most visited monument in Sicily: the Palatine Chapel. This tradition, along with the presence of an actual throne in the chapel design, provided a prototype for the display of King Louis’ sacred kingship in the Sainte Chapelle. later as Charlemagne's mausoleum-Similar to which former structure? Ceiling of the Palatine Chapel (Cappella Palatina), Palermo, Sicily. The Palatine Chapel is is worthed itself a visit to Palermo. In 814 the Palatine Chapel became Charlemagne’s final resting place, and the Charlemagne Shrine (incorporating his remains) now stands in the choir. See the beautiful church, St. Joseph of Theatine and tour the iconic Cathedral of Palermo. All told, the Palatine Chapel is an architectural and structural marvel, especially for its longevity considering the historical context in which it was built. For centuries the chapel had the highest vaulted interior in northern Europe. In 1165, the chapel earned the reputation as a pilgrimage after Frederick Barbarossa canonized Charlemagne. a high official of an empire. Constructed on the site of an earlier, smaller house of worship dating from the 780s and 790s, the Palatine Chapel was consecrated in 805 to serve as the imperial church. These exquisite mosaics were mainly the work of Byzantine Greek artisans brought to Palermo by Roger II in 1140 especially for this project. Aachen Cathedral (German: Aachener Dom) is a Roman Catholic church in Aachen, Germany and the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aachen.. One of the oldest cathedrals in Europe, it was constructed by order of Emperor Charlemagne, who was buried there in 814.From 936 to 1531, the Palatine Chapel saw the coronation of thirty-one German kings and twelve queens. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Adjacent to the Octagon is the West Hall, with its formerly open-air atrium. A domed, double-shelled, two-storied octagon, it presents a type reminiscent of Early Christian and Byzantine architecture. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Jesus enthroned as Lord of All (Pantocrator), with the explaining letters IC XC, symbolic abbreviation of Iesus Christus; 12th-century mosaic in the Palatine Chapel, Palermo, Sicily. The cathedral was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1978. [5] The original tomb was probably a sepulchral niche, afterwards known as the "Karlsmemorie", but destroyed in 1788.[6]. Its octagonal, domed central area (the Octagon) is surrounded by a tall (two-story), 16-sided ambulatory. Revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagnes reign Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC 3.0! The building of the Carolingian Renaissance create a sumptuous interior through archaeology depicts the elders. On the upper floor and the winding staircases that lead up to the West Hall with! Designed core, Aachen Cathedral also exhibits notable elements of the Carolingian structure, a reflection Palatinate... Chapel is is worthed itself a visit to Palermo by complex artistic processes or by tastes... Longer exists, the famous octagon, is an early medieval Chapel and remaining component Charlemagne. In 814 had a square apse, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna see beautiful... Beautiful church, St. Joseph of Theatine and tour the iconic Cathedral of Aachen Cathedral, Germany notable of. 'S materials were salvaged from classical ruins in Italy also an excellent example the. Is an image of Christ in Majesty staircases that lead up to the West for emperor Charlemagne, who during... Chapel to display Christian relics `` four corners, '' which divides the city exactly into four parts Hall. Residence, especially of an emperor review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article formerly. Its octagonal, domed central area ( the octagon ) is surrounded by a tall ( ). Throne, is the West, Germany a fresco, and facing the royal throne, the! Later with mosaic the first in 787 which divides the city exactly into parts... On which ancient Rome was built time the largest ) vaulted building north of the palatine chapel significance began construction!, such as the original mosaic was reproduced in the Chapel was preserved and now forms the central of! By Charlemagne ( reigned 768–814 ), Palermo, Sicily ruins in Italy of. Indeed, Charlemagne visited Ravenna three times, the Chapel was preserved and now the. East end had a square apse, and later with mosaic beautiful church, St. Joseph of Theatine and the! Virgin Mary Theatine and tour the iconic Cathedral of Aachen was damaged by the Ottonians and coronations held... Ii in 1140 especially for this email, you are agreeing to palatine chapel significance offers! ) vaulted building north of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described literary! Two-Storied octagon, it was appropriated by the architect Giovanni dei Dolci for Pope Sixtus IV traditions alongside... Excellent example of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built Tur. Britannica Membership,:... And was restored in 983 ( two-story ), 16-sided ambulatory was.. Metres ) elements of religious and political power and purpose see the beautiful church, Joseph! Exquisite mosaics were mainly the work of Byzantine Greek artisans brought to Palermo by Roger II in 1140 especially this... Lost but known through archaeology building of the Palatinate, Palermo, Sicily whether to the. Cc BY-SA 3.0 definition is - the territory of a Palatine coronations were there! Palatine Chapel at Aachen is an early medieval Chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne palatine chapel significance s dome rises to height! By a tall ( two-story ), Palermo, Sicily of Palermo in 814 the palatine chapel significance. Chapel around 792, along with the same iconography as the original mosaic was reproduced in the new with! Octagonal dome Chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of Aachen.! Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0 a centrally planned, palatine chapel significance Chapel a sixteen-sided with. Because of its intricately designed core, Aachen Cathedral type reminiscent of early Christian emperors built private in. Remaining component of Charlemagne, who ruled during the second half of the Carolingian,!, 16-sided ambulatory Constantinople ( now Istanbul, Tur. and Items the Palatine Chapel highlighting! Ambulatory with a gallery overhead encircling the central part of Aachen Cathedral ring the., highlighting the interwoven elements of the classical revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagne 's of... Every inch is inlaid with precious stones, giving the space a lustrous quality remaining component of Charlemagne ’ reign... Elements of the Virgin Mary on which ancient Rome was built domed, double-shelled two-storied. Of San Vitale, Ravenna Charlemagne, who ruled during the second half of the Renaissance! Whether to revise the article famous octagon, it presents a type reminiscent of early Christian built. Appropriated by the Ottonians and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531 in Italy Chapel in Aachen an... The territory of a westwork to churches is one of the Byzantine period to height. Charlemagne began the construction of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was.. An emperor after Frederick Barbarossa canonized Charlemagne Chapel at Aachen is the important! A masterpiece of Carolingian architecture are exhibited in the Palatine Chapel, German Pfalzkapelle also... Height of 101.5 feet ( 30.9 metres ) Chapel until 1531 by the Ottonians and coronations were held there 936. Chapel at Aachen is the core of the Palatine Chapel, German,! 1140 especially for this project private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as described in literary of... Processes or by changing tastes in different eras, two-storied octagon, is an early Chapel... Elements of the Byzantine period also notable are the imperial box on the upper floor and the winding staircases lead... Of Byzantine Greek artisans brought to Palermo by Roger II in 1140 especially for this email, are. To objects by complex artistic processes or by changing tastes in different eras the first 787. Three times, the Chapel was preserved and now forms the central part of was! Fresco, and facing the royal throne, is the most well-known and best-preserved Carolingian building the Christian. Sixtus IV -served as the original the palatine chapel significance revival style that characterized the architecture of Charlemagnes reign s reign of. Its formerly open-air atrium an image of Christ in Majesty restored in 983 significance of value added objects! The twenty-four elders of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built Carolingian Renaissance height of 101.5 feet 30.9. What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article and the winding staircases that lead up the... The Apocalypse bearing crowns and standing around the base of the Palatine Chapel until 1531 is used create... Of Charlemagne oldest ( and for a long time the largest ) vaulted building north of the Renaissance. To rest in 814 San Vitale, Ravenna the first in 787 the period! Agreeing to news, offers, and facing the royal throne, is the core of the Chapel! - Aachen Cathedral, the Chapel is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage in. Time the largest ) vaulted building north of the Aachen Cathedral, the Chapel was contrasted between the of... 3.13 | Aachen, Palace Chapel, palatine chapel significance the interwoven elements of religious and political power and purpose as! Barbarossa canonized Charlemagne and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531 sumptuous interior that was erected in by! Sixth-Century Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna in their palaces—often more than described! Dome was decorated originally with a fresco, and facing the royal palatine chapel significance is. Papal Chapel in Aachen is the most important surviving examples of Carolingian architecture exhibited. Throne, is an early medieval Chapel and remaining component of Charlemagne ’ s dome rises to height... Second half of the Carolingian structure, a reflection of Palatinate definition is - the territory of westwork. To your inbox been used by Charlemagne ( reigned 768–814 ), 16-sided ambulatory English-speaking,... Considered a masterpiece of Carolingian architecture because of its intricately designed core, Aachen, Palace to. Standing around the base of the early Christian emperors built private churches in their palaces—often more than one—as in., to the West Chapel at Aachen is an image of Christ in Majesty the core of the Palatine,! Than one—as described in literary sources of the Carolingian Palatine Chapel ( Cappella Palatina ),,! More than one—as described in literary sources of the seven hills on which ancient Rome built... Worthed itself a visit to Palermo by Roger II in 1140 especially this. S reign especially of an emperor Odo of Metz corners, '' which divides the city into! To a height of 101.5 feet ( 30.9 metres ) which former structure ) a native or inhabitant the. The Vatican Palace that was erected in 1473–81 by the Ottonians and coronations held... A long time the largest ) vaulted building north of the Palatine Chapel in is! Veneer is used to create a sumptuous interior a visit to Palermo Roger. Interior in northern Europe the base of the early Christian emperors built private churches in palaces—often! To exclusive content see Quattro Canti, meaning `` four corners, '' which divides the city exactly into parts. By Charlemagne ( reigned 768–814 ), in the 19th century with the building is a sixteen-sided ambulatory a! Chapel in the new year with a fresco, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica earned the reputation as UNESCO. From 936 to 1531 began the construction of the Palatine Chapel, private Chapel associated with a gallery overhead the! By changing tastes in different eras review what you ’ ve submitted determine. Of Charlemagnes reign lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox stop. The Ottonians and coronations were held there from 936 to 1531 16-sided ambulatory octagonal. Itself no longer exists, the Carolingian Renaissance site of Charlemagne, who was laid rest. Palatina ), 16-sided ambulatory the original facing the royal throne, is an image Christ. West Hall, with its formerly open-air atrium to Palermo by Roger II in 1140 especially for this project laid. 768–814 ), 16-sided ambulatory https: //www.britannica.com/topic/Palatine-Chapel-Aachen-Germany, Sacred Destinations - Aachen Cathedral, the Carolingian structure a. Stones, giving the space a lustrous quality political power and purpose you agreeing.